Mastering and Formats

Stop Counting Samples

Report from the frontline of the CD Loudness war, 2006: It's not over yet. Read about distortion developing in CD players, data reduction systems etc. The Appendix suggests improved procedures to follow in production and mastering.

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Level Control in Digital Mastering

Music mastering is becoming a battle for maximum level rather than a quest for audio quality, because counting consecutive samples at OdBFS is not an adequate restriction of level.

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The Secret of the mastering Engineer

Mastering is an art and a science. In this acclaimed booklet, Bob Katz shares good advice about monitoring, metering and processing. About listening to the music and supporting it as the road to Nirvana - from one of the true yogis of our industry.

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Overload in Signal Conversion

A paper about the headroom needed in processing, routing and reproduction of digital signals to prevent distortion and listening fatigue from happening. It includes a discussion of AD, DA, sample rate conversion and data reduction systems.

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0 dBFS+ Levels in Digital Mastering

This paper examines the sonic consequences when 0dBFS+ signals are reproduced in typical consumer equipment. The performance of a variety of domestic CD players exposed to such signals are presented and evaluated.

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Programmed for Distortion

Listen to the artifacts produced when hot CDs are sample rate converted or reproduced in a CD player. Blind optimization against full scale during mastering make new releases programmed for distortion.